Earth's Insight Welcome to Earth's Insight Tue, 11 Feb 2020 08:00:25 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Earth's Insight 32 32 Natural disaster is getting affected by climate change Sat, 25 Jan 2020 11:30:16 +0000 Natural disaster is an unfortunate event that occurs on earth.And now natural are getting more dangerous because of climate change.

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Natural disasters are parts of the environment since the earth has taken birth. Natural disasters are basically an adverse event that occurs on the surface of the earth due to the natural process of earth. Some natural disasters occur due to non-climatic reasons like earthquake, tsunami, volcanic eruption, etc. But some of the natural disasters are directly related to earth’s climate system like hurricanes, floods, wildfires, etc.  Both types of natural calamities are occurring on earth from long time ago. But we are seeing some drastic change in the disaster which occurs due to climatic reasons. These types of natural disasters are getting more and more frequent year by year. More frequent floods, more wildfires, more frequent droughts. The catastrophic situation is getting normal. But this normal is not good for us. We are getting very close to emergency situations all over the world. The main reason for this drastic situation is climate change and global warming. From the industrial era, our global temperature is increasing faster than normal due to more greenhouse gas emissions. This affects natural disasters and make them frequent and more catastrophic. There are 5 natural disasters which are most affected by the effects of climate change. The following are the 5 disasters and how they are influenced by climate change.


One natural disaster which is having a significant increase in its frequency and intensity is flood. Flood is basically overflow of water on the land region. These situations occur due to the overflow of water bodies like rivers, lakes, oceans. It may also take place due to accumulation of water due to heavy rainfall. Floods are alway been a natural disaster faced by many regions of the earth. This flood is basically a part of the climate system. But year by year the floods are proven to be more catastrophic specifically in some regions. Catastrophic flood result in deaths of animals and humans, damage to houses and other public properties, etc. These events are more catastrophic in recent years. Flood in Venice Italy are getting more frequent and intense. The reason behind it is known to be high tides. Catastrophic flood situation is also faced by Indian subcontinent, more specifically, India and Bangladesh which is a common natural disaster in the region but getting more frequent.. People in Bangladesh are migrating from some region because of this emergency situation. Cold desert in India known as Ladakh is also facing floods like situation in frequent years, although it is a low rainfall region. And many other region in this world is facing a situation like this. The image below is the graph of heavy rainfall event of specific decade in India.
Number of flood events in india
But how climate change is responsible for this? Floods are very dependent on the climate. This climate is responsible for the water cycle. Due to global warming the average temperature of earth is rising. Higher temperature leads to more evaporation of water, leading to higher and denser cloud formation. This denser cloud formatting leads to heavy rain in the region leading to natural disasters like this. Global warming also affects the earth’s atmospheric circulation. This atmospheric circulation leads to more cloud formation in specific region. This lead to more catastrophic rainfall in the area. The another reason for intense flood is sea level rise. The sea level rise is taking place due to global warming. Increasing temperature is resulting in melting of arctic ice which is increasing the sea level of the earth. This situation is so dangerous that the smaller island nations Kiribati, Mauritius, etc. will be underwater in a few decades. Thus flood is one of the natural disasters which is severely affected by climate change.


Some regions of the earth face severe rainfall and cause flood but not all. Some regions are also affected by extremely low rainfall. If low or no rainfall continued for a longer time, then the situation that appears is known as drought which is a natural disaster. Drought may not look like a violent natural disaster which comes unknowingly and left a disastrous situation. But still the consequences of the drought becomes very harsh for the people and animals living in the region. Drought affects almost everything in the region, damage to crop in the region, water scarcity, shortage of food, damage to the ecosystem.  This results in death of people, animals, farmer suicide, etc. Drought can stay for months and even stay for years. This can lead to catastrophic situation like mass migration from the region and can be a humanitarian crisis. Like other natural disasters, the drought is also a climatic condition which is taking place from a long time ago and some regions are always been drought prone. But now the situation is getting more and more intense. The current intensity of the drought is linked to climate change and thus the reason behind it is the rising global temperature of the earth. A constant increase in greenhouse gas emissions is rising global temperature which results in increase of moisture evaporation from land, rivers, lakes and other water bodies in India. Increased evaporation in the plane soil, affects plants and reduces rainfall. Dry soil become less able to absorb the water and can create condition of heavy rainfall in the region as a flood like situation. Dry drought like this situation can even lead to other natural disaster like wildfires / bushfires. If the global temperature kept increasing on earth then we may see more and more intense drought in the future.


Wildfires are naturally occurring forest fires. It is a natural disaster which includes grassland fires bushfires, desert fires, hill fires, etc.  There are millions of wildfires all over the world occurring every year. They have started taking place from 420 million years ago. These fires are a very natural thing for the earth’s ecosystem and the reason behind this is a favourable condition like rich in oxygen, carbon-rich, dry climate for specific season and even lightening. Some species survive and adapted to these types of wildfires. Thus not having wildfires in the ecosystem and elimination of wildfires will not be a good idea. But the wildfires also come with some bad news. Extreme wildfires can result in the damage like damage to houses, death of people, death of animals, and also can result in lots of carbon emissions. Extreme wildfires are increasing all over the world day by day. Wildfires and dry season are staying for a longer time than average. This natural disasters are also getting uncontrollable. In 2019, amazon wildfires was extremer than ever before. California’s wildfires was taking place for a longer time. Even Siberia, which is known as one of the coldest places, also faced a forest fires. And the most catastrophic fire of 2019 was Australian bushfires. Approximately 25 people died, and many houses were burned and approximately 1 billion animals died including kangaroos and koalas. The catastrophic situation polluted the water, sky appeared to be red, polluted air made uneasy form the people to breathe. Bushfires like this where never as dangerous as it was this year. The below image is showing how major fires in australia is increased
Number of major fires per decade
There are many points where we can say climate change was directly linked to this natural disaster. And the most important point is weather. Climate change has its biggest influence on earth weather pattern. Due to this, Many areas faced situation of heavy rainfall and even dry and drought like situation. Extreme wildfire’s area where faced more severely with dry season, most importantly in Australia. This dry season work as a fuel for wildfires. Climate is even influencing earth’s wind, the speed of wind is also increasing which provides oxygen to the fires. More oxygen, the greater the fire. This lead to faster spread of fire in the region. Constantly increasing temperature also works positively for wildfires. Thus, natural disasters like wildfires is also having an impact on climate change from various aspects


Hurricanes also known as tropical cyclone is a rotating storm having high speed wind. These natural disaster occurs in tropical (the Area of earth near the equator and between the tropic of cancer and tropic of Capricorn) and subtropical region. This rotating storm is known as a hurricane when it reaches a speed of 74 m (Approx. 119 Km) per hour. These hurricanes have a low pressure zone in the middle.The warm water evaporates with the air and condenses into cloud in the higher altitude. The wind keep chasing the low pressure region in the middle and when the wind reaches 74 miles per hour then it called hurricane which is a natural disaster and can create a catastrophic situation if arrives at land. It can lead to a lot of destruction. The link between hurricanes and climate change is complex, but they are surely related to the ocean’s temperature. Warm water is the energy that feeds the ocean temperature and global warming is the reason behind increased ocean temperature. When both the water temperature and the temperature of the sea rises, Oceans water starts evaporating into the atmosphere. This buildup air moisture which contribute to an increase in extreme rainfall.   For every 1.8°F increase in global temperatures there is a seven percent increase in the moisture-holding capacity of the atmosphere. Thus, natural disasters like hurricanes can relate to climate change and we can see more disastrous hurricanes in the future.


The heatwave is a spell of excessive hot weather which can take place for a specific season and humidity is also one of the factors in it. The heatwave may not sound very dangerous, but the heat waves can create some dangerous situations. It can lead to damage to the crop, heat related illness and can cause many deaths from heat due to hyperthermia. Thus heatwave can count as a natural disaster. 

Rising of global average temperature is the factor which is linked to climate change. Increase of heat due to heavy release of greenhouse gases are making heatwave more and severer and frequent. If no action taken to cut down this emission increase the number of heatwave per year. The current heatwave in India, Europe, and other region caused significant damage.

Thus, a natural disaster like heatwave may not sound like a “natural disaster”. But it may kill many people than compared to other calamities as a human is unable to naturally cool down itself if it gets too warm.


These five natural disasters are very well linked to climate change. This affected natural disasters by making it more intense and more frequent. Year after year these natural disasters is having very catastrophic consequences resulting in death of people and animals, destruction of property, damage to crops, food shortage, heavy rainfall, water shortage. And the reason behind climate change is us. Every year the rate of greenhouse gas emission is increasing making the planet more and warmer. Natural disasters are making us pay for it. We need to move toward sustainable energy as fast as possible.

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How Bushfires in Australia are related to climate change Fri, 10 Jan 2020 15:17:52 +0000 Bushfires is australia are getting worse year by year as the global average temperature of earth rises and has a relation with climate change

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Bushfires in Australia is taking place from centuries. More specifically in Victoria, Western Australia, Northern Territory and South Australia. Bushfires is known to be a natural disaster which occurs in Australia usually in dry and drought like season.

But year by year, Australia’s bushfire has aggravated to larger extent and even for longer time. So, thus the bushfires have any relation with climate change? If yes. then how?

Before that we will first understanding how the bushfires takes place.

Bushfires are wildfire that takes place due to hot and dry weather. Reason of bushfires occurring in the hot and dry season is that the dry season work as fuel for the bushfires. Thus, the small fire and even spark in dry season can start heavy bushfires.

Hot and dry weather turns the forest dry making the leaves of the trees dry and easy to catch fire.

Bushfire takes place mostly because of humans burn fire unintentionally. But can also cause due to lightning and even from the spark when one rock fall on the another.

This bushfires results in animal’s death due to getting burned alive. Also damage of the houses near the bushfires and even death of humans.

Bushfires can even change the weather due the smoke cloud of fire can result into airborne disease and even red skies.

As informed earlier, bushfires is a natural disaster and it is common in parts like Australia. But bushfires are increasing year after year. This means more and more animal death, more destruction of house, more people death and even heavy carbon emissions.

The main reason given for the escalation of the number of bushfires in Australia is global warming. Global warming is basically rising of average temperature of the globe.

Average global temperature of the earth is rising but the average temperature of the australia is rising even faster that average global temperature.

The below chart shows how the temperature of the Australia is grown year by year and even higher than the global average.

Infographic: Australia is Warming Faster than Global Average | Statista
You will find more infographics at Statista

Global warming is the main reason for climate change. This effect the weather pattern of earth. The effect on Australia of climate change is longer and more intense hot and dry weather. This type of temperature is unfortunately favorable for bushfires.

Climate change also affects the water cycle. This water cycle is essential for rainfall. Change in the water cycle results in heavy rain like flooding or less rain than average.

In the case of Australia, the result of climate change is low rainfall which too supports the dry climate and leads to drought like situation suitable for bushfire.

One of the most important factors in this is basically oxygen. Oxygen is the gas which is needed for fire to burn. One fifth of earth’s atmosphere is oxygen. But that is not related to the climate change!

But climate change is also responsible for speeding up the wind. Speeding up the wind is what gives fire more oxygen. This helps bushfires to spread in large scale. Spreading of bushfires in large scale is what creates a catastrophe.

It has been clearly shown that in recent years, bushfires have grown to very large extent.

The below chart shows, how Number of major fires had increased in recent years



The bushfires in Australia is a catastrophic situation occur in a specific season of the year. This is taking place from past centuries and it is a natural disaster.

This natural disaster is increasing its intensity year by year. Every year the situation is getting worse, the fire is getting more and more intense leaving a disastrous situation.

At the same time the average temperature of the globe is rising and average temperature of australia is rising even higher than the global average. This is resulting in hot and dry weather for longer time.

Australia is even experiencing the low rainfall in the region because of messed up water cycle. At the same time the wind is getting even faster than before. This faster wind is spreading the bushfires more faster.

The thing which are making bushfires a bigger issue than it was before are clearly related to the change happening on earth due to global warming and climate change.

But still bushfires are not that bad and should not be completely eliminated. Many of the species even uses the bushfires for their own benefit too. For example, The plant known as banksia uses fire to spread its seed. Thus, Bushfires are not all bad.

But the real issue is too much intensified bushfires for longer time. Climate change is responsible for the specific change. This is what taking the bushfires to the extreme.

Larger step need to be taken for tackling the climate change issue especially by turning into the sustainable sources of energy which can stop increasing the greenhouse effect. If the climate gets hotter the situation will get even worse!

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What is solar energy and its importance Sat, 07 Dec 2019 16:31:23 +0000 Solar energy is the most important renewable source of energy to the earth comes from the sun in the form of radiation. The solar energy is necessary and most abundant form of energy to the earth which carry out various process between the five components( cryosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere) of the earth.

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Solar energy is the most important renewable source of energy to the earth comes from the sun in the form of radiation. The solar energy is necessary and most abundant form of energy to the earth which carry out various process between the five components(cryosphere, biosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere) of the earth.

Image by OpenClipart-Vectors from Pixabay

Earth receives solar energy approx. 1360 W/m2 to the atmosphere and approx. 1000 W/m2 to the earth’s surface. Some of the solar energy from the sun is reflected back to the outer space from the atmosphere. Solar energy is absorbed by the earth’s surface, oceans, and atmosphere.

Solar energy is responsible for:

Atmospheric circulation:

The atmospheric circulation is a movement of air in large scale. This movement takes place when equator creates a low pressure ( Low pressure is created where there high temperature) and also in the polar region where there is high pressure ( High pressure is created where there low temperature)

The thermal radiation from the sun have a higher influence on the equator of the earth which creates a low pressure. Due to very high temperature in the equator, the air starts to rise upwards upto the tropopause. As air can’t go above tropopause will start to diverge to north and south. After moving towards north / south, the air will cool down, and it will get subside in 30 degrees latitude. And then the air will go to both the direction. It will create a cycle between 30 degrees latitude and equator called “ Hadley cell “.

Polar region has cold temperature which creates high pressure. As air moves toward high pressure to low pressure the air will move from poles to equator and subside when the temperature is high in 60 degrees latitude and move to the both direction. It will create cycle between poles (90 degrees latitude) to 60 degrees latitude called " Polar Cell ".

Due to these two cells, between 30 degrees latitude to 60 degrees latitude a cell form called “ Ferrel Cell ”. And all basically know as atmospheric circulation.

This forms a circulation of the air which takes place with the help of solar energy and is responsible for the weather pattern and wind.

Cyclone and anticyclone:

The cyclone and anticyclone is a phenomenon which is much related to atmospheric circulation. Cyclone are form mostly in the tropical region and the temperate region. happen when air coming high pressure region trying to submerge into low pressure, but deflect due to coriolis effect. Result in air rising up to the tropopause and condense into heavy cloud.

Thus when a cyclone comes to the land, it comes with heavy wind and heavy rain and flood like situation.

Anticyclone are form mostly in the polar region and junction between hadley and ferrel cells. This form due to travelling of air from high pressure to low pressure is diverted by the coriolis effect.

This results in clear skies and low rainfall in the region. Thus most of the low rainfall and desert region comes in anticyclone region.

Water cycle:

Water cycle is the process of circulation of the water of the ocean, sea and even plant, etc with the help of solar energy.

When solar energy heats up the water, it turns into a gaseous state as water vapour. These water vapour evaporates in the air up to the higher altitude where the temperature gets low.

Low temperature condenses water vapour into tiny droplets. The higher concentration of these tiny droplets form clouds.

This cloud rains on the surface of the earth and most of it into the ocean. This water which comes on the surface of the earth due to rain, also ends up into the ocean through rivers, streams, etc completing a cycle.

Thus, solar energy is the most important in the water cycle.

Image by lcallard210 from Pixabay


Photosynthesis is a process carried out by plants and other organisms. This process is basically conversion of solar energy which comes as light to chemical energy. The process took place with the help of carbon dioxide and water.

The energy is used as a fuel by plant and organism. This chemical energy is stored in the form of carbohydrate basically in form of sugar.

Thus, photosynthesis is a process takes place with the help of solar energy which is responsible for consumption of CO2 and release of oxygen in the atmosphere.

Use of solar energy:

Many processes are carried out by solar energy. Buy solar energy can also be used for source of energy for us.

The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined.

As most of us may know, solar energy is used by us with the help of solar panels. This solar panels are known as photovoltaic panels which convert solar energy which is in the form of light energy into electricity.

But not just that the solar energy can be used for many purposes.

One of the most common uses of solar energy is for water heating. The most common types of solar water heaters are evacuated tube collectors and glazed flat plate collectors usually used for domestic hot water; and unglazed plastic collectors used mainly to heat swimming pools.

Solar energy is also been use of heating, cooling and ventilation for homes. Solar cooker is also one of the examples of using solar for cooking purpose. Solar cookers use sunlight for cooking, drying and pasteurization.

Water treatment is also done through solar energy. For this solar distillation is used which make saline or brackish water potable.


We can see the solar energy is the most important source of energy of our earth. Most of the crucial process are carried out of the earth with the help of solar energy. But in today's world, more solar energy is trapped by the earth because of the higher greenhouse effect due higher emission of the greenhouse gases resulting in global warming.

This all is resulting in climate change which is changing the weather pattern and creating the issue. But using solar power can be the solution for this. We should consider using the power of solar energy as fuel to make our planet better again.

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What air pollution is Tue, 19 Nov 2019 07:45:20 +0000 Air pollution is a mixture of solid and gaseous particles in the atmosphere. The solid and gaseous particles always consist in air, but pollution means an excessive amount of these particles which result in contamination of the air.

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Air pollution is a mixture of solid and gaseous particles in the atmosphere. The solid and gaseous particles always consist in air, but pollution means an excessive amount of these particles which result in contamination of the air.

The solid particle in the air mostly consist of dust and gases consist in are are mostly CO2, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide. These pollutants which adulterating the air can even cause health issues. This can result in severe disease and even death in many cases.These air pollution has natural reason and also happens due to human impact.

Air pollution
Image by Johannes Plenio from Pixabay

Natural causes of air pollution:

Natural causes of air pollution consist of volcanic eruptions and forest fires. The volcanic eruption doesn’t happen all the time but when happens, it can have a major impact on the local region and even slight impact on atmosphere and other regions. Volcanic eruption mostly erupts pollutants like sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen fluoride. In which, sulphur dioxide is the gas which causes acid rain.

Plus Volcanic also emit volcanic ash and can travel thousands of miles and can cause respiratory problems, especially to the young children and also to the people having respiratory issue already. It can also lower the land temperature by blocking the sun rays and also leads to climate change.

Another source as mentioned above for natural pollution is forest fires. forest fires emit carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter. Carbon monoxide, which is a poisonous gas, can be emitted in large amounts during forest fires.

Particulates, which are mixtures of soot, tars, and volatile organic substances, either solid or liquid, are emitted in large quantities from forest fires. The particulates, which can be smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter, if deeply inhaled into the lungs, can damage lung tissues and cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems.

Although, there are also other natural sources of pollution but the impact is very less.

Human causes of air pollution:

Emissions from industries and manufacturing activities is one of the leading contaminator of air which can cause air pollution. These industries consist of waste incinerated which burn waste no matter what in it which can even burn heavy metal, plastics which are very hazardous. The manufacturing industries also emits high levels of carbon monoxide, organic compounds, and chemicals into the air. Petroleum refineries also release lots of hydrocarbons into the air and they are greenhouses causes global warming.

Transportation is also one of the biggest contributors of air pollution in the atmosphere especially after industrial era. The vehicle which are used in transportation are mostly uses fossil fuel. Thus, these vehicles emit dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons and particulates.

The other pollutant are household and farming pollution. Crop dusting, fumigating homes, household cleaning products or painting supplies, over the counter insect/pest killers, fertilizer dust emits harmful chemicals into the air and cause pollution. In many cases, when we use these chemicals at home or offices with no or little ventilation, we may fall ill if we breathe them.

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What is greenhouse effect Sat, 16 Nov 2019 06:13:41 +0000 The greenhouse effect is the process in the atmosphere to keep the planet warm by trapping the heat with the help of greenhouse gases which is essential for life to survive on earth.

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The greenhouse effect is the process in the atmosphere to keep the planet warm by trapping the heat with the help of greenhouse gases which is essential for life to survive on earth. The earth’s average temperature is 15oC because of the greenhouse effect, without it would have been -18oC. But how this greenhouse effect takes place? We will know it further.

How greenhouse effect takes place?

Firstly, We need to know that most of the energy the earth is getting is from sun which comes as a thermal radiation. Nearly half of the thermal radiation is absorbed by the surface of the earth. The throwback the energy in the forms long wave (infrared) radiation to outer space.

And here comes the greenhouse gas into the picture! The greenhouse gases consist of water vapour, carbon dioxide, Nitrous oxide, methane, etc. The property of greenhouse gases is to absorb heat and keep the planet warm.

When the earth’s surface emits heat in the form of infrared to outer space, the greenhouse gases absorb the infrared radiation and keeps the planet warm. This warming of the planet due to the greenhouse gases is known as the greenhouse effect.

Greenhouse effect

Human impact:

The greenhouse effect is a natural process. But since from industrial period, the human impact in this process has been increased significantly. And the biggest reason for this is fossil fuel and agriculture.

Fossil fuel when burned emits carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas which stays for a long time in the atmosphere and absorbs. As after the start of the industrial age the emission of CO2 has been increased a lot which is increasing the greenhouse effect makes the planet warmer.

Agriculture and animal grazing emits methane and uses nitrous oxide as fertilizers. Methane is a greenhouse gas which doesn’t stay for long into the atmosphere as compared to carbon dioxide but have a much higher potential of absorbing heat than CO2 which is warming the planet too.

Nitrous oxide is used as a fertilizer which is having very high potential of absorbing the heat and stays into the atmosphere on an average up to 114 year which is as much as CO2. Thus, can have a major impact on greenhouse gases.

These issues are causing the planet to warm more than needed which is termed as global warming. Because of this global warming the polar ice is melting which is resulting in absorption of energy by the earth's surface causing more warming. More warming eventually increasing more water to convert into water vapour which to a greenhouse gas and increases the greenhouse effect.

This is further also changing the climate of the earth which is termed as climate change. So increasing greenhouse gas effect is basically creating a big issue for the climate, survival of life and global temperature.

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Greenhouse gases and its types Thu, 14 Nov 2019 13:09:00 +0000 Greenhouse gases are the gases in the atmosphere which adsorbs the heat thrown from surface of the earth to keep it warm for life to survive

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Greenhouse gases are the gases in the atmosphere of the planet which absorbs or emits thermal infrared radiation which is thrown back by the earth to the planet to outer space. These greenhouse gases are very essential for survival of life on the planet as it keeps the earth warm.

GHG absorbs the infrared radiation which keep the temperature of the earth good for life to survive. Due to greenhouse gases the current average temperature is 15oC without greenhouse gases the average temperature would be -18oC which makes hard for life to survive. But due to higher amount of emission GHG are warming the planet more than needed which is termed as global warming.

Most of us know carbon dioxide ( CO2) as a greenhouse gas but it’s not the only one, there are many greenhouse gases as:

Types of greenhouse gases:

Water vapor:

Water vapor is basically a gaseous form of water in the atmosphere. Actually, It is the most abundant greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It is an effective greenhouse gas as absorb long wave radiation and radiates it back to the surface, thus contributing to warming.

Vapors slightly contribute to warming of the planet more than needed, as water vapors only stay for a few days in the atmosphere. But, more rise in the temperature of the planet will lead to rise in amount of water vapour release in the atmosphere.

Carbon Dioxide:

The carbon dioxide is most well known greenhouse gas. By volume the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is 0.04%. The emission of CO2 takes place through animal, plant, bacteria and other natural sources. CO2 also emits through fossil fuel which started increasing in much higher amount from industrial period which contribute to global warming and further climate change.

As a greenhouse gas Co2 also have the ability to trap the radiation. But unlike water vapor, the carbon dioxide remains for a long time in the atmosphere trap heat for longer timer that other gases. It is also the biggest reason the CO2 is most blamed greenhouse gas for climate change.


Methane is also known as a greenhouse gas and it is one of the most quickly increasing greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. Since 1750, methane concentration in the atmosphere has increased 150 %. Methane doesn’t stay in nature as long as carbon dioxide but in less time also it can absorb a lot of heat. Methane is 84 times more potent than CO2 and about 25% of man made emissions we are facing is the cause of methane emission.

Nitrous oxide:

Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas comes from the agriculture, fuel combustion and other sources. Nitrous oxide stays in the atmosphere on an average up to 114 years. The nitrous oxide is known to be even worse than carbon dioxide as the impact of 1 pound of N2O on warming the atmosphere is almost 300 times that of 1 pound of carbon dioxide.

But not just warming, nitrous oxide also known as the substance which depletes the ozone layer. Thus, nitrous oxide is warming the planet and depleting the ozone layer at the same time.


Ozone is not typically a greenhouse gas but it is having a greenhouse characteristics to keep earth warm. But it can also be seen as a pollutant in nature. Ozone layer is formed in stratosphere made of ozone which basically prevents earth from UV rays.


Chlorofluorocarbons, commonly known as CFCs, are a group of man-made compounds containing chlorine, fluorine and carbon. CFC is breakdown due to UV rays and causes ozone depletion but also has greenhouse character in them.

The ability to trapping heat of CFC is very good. Although, the amount of chlorofluorocarbons is very small.

Hydro fluorocarbon:

HFCs are potent greenhouse gases because they absorb infrared radiation and because they have relatively long atmospheric lifetimes.

HFCs are potent greenhouse gases because they absorb infrared radiation and because they have relatively long atmospheric lifetimes. The five most commonly used HFCs are between 150 and 5,000 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO2. There is also an HFC which is up to 12,500 times more potent than CO2.

If the global use of HFCs continues to grow at the current rate, their contribution to the greenhouse effect will increase up to 10 percent of that of the main greenhouse gas CO2 in 2050.

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What is Global Warming in simple words? Sun, 29 Sep 2019 07:44:15 +0000 Global warming is an significant rise in the global temperature of earth. The term "Global Warming" is mosly refers as rising temperature due to human activities.

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Global warming is basically a significant rise in temperature of the earth throughout time. This word “Global warming” refers to an increase in the temperature of the earth due to human activity. The temperature of the earth is increasing significantly after 20th Century when there was the start of the industrial era which is known to be the most responsible for this cause. Global warming is now the big issue in front of the world, and it needs to be addressed on priority. This is happening mostly because of greenhouse gas emission. More greenhouse gas is produced by human activities the more the temperature of the globe is rising.

How the global warming takes place?

Our earth needs energy for warmth and survival of life on the planet. Most of the energy the earth getfrom the sun. This energy comes as a thermal radiation from the sun, helps plants to grow, keep the planet warm. Without this the earth will freeze and the average temperature of the earth would be -18oC.

Earth also radiates energy back to outer space in the form of infrared radiation. The balance between energy taken by the earth from the sun and the energy radiated back to the outer space is known as Earth’s energy budget.

When the earth radiates energy back to outer space, it is absorbed by greenhouse gases like CO2, Methane, Ozone, etc. The trapping of this energy in the form of heat is essential to keep the planet warm as the planet will freeze without it.

But after the rise of the industrial era, greenhouse gas emissions increased dramatically. The emission of CO2 was very high. The high amount of emission of greenhouse gases increased the absorption of infrared radiation resulting in trapping of more heat eventually increasing the temperature of the earth. And this is how the global warming takes place.

Image by Tumisu from Pixabay

It is for sure that this is happening because of human influence. Emission of industries, emission due to the transportation, and many other aspects increasing GHG emission making the earth’s energy budget imbalance. This imbalance is changing the earths. The average temperature of the earth’s surface temperature is rising, the ocean is getting warmer day by day, Polar ice, glaciers are melting. One of the major problems we are facing due to global warming is climate change.

The climate change is responsible for the drastic change in the weather pattern. This temperature rise making many species unadaptable to the environment. Hence, many species are getting extinct day by day. This also resulted in many forest fires which killing homes of many animals. The rise in the ocean's temperature leads to an increase in water vapor which is a greenhouse gas too, contribution to trapping of more heat increasing global warming. Melting of ice results in rising of sea level making threat to small island which can go beneath the water. Climate change is contributing to the drastic change in weather which leads to various natural calamities.

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How climate change occurs? Thu, 19 Sep 2019 02:45:58 +0000 Climate change refers to change in the weather and it’s pattern. These takes place due to change in climate system of earth.

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Climate change is a word we often hear nowadays. Climate change is basically a change in the climate system of the planet which we observe in things like temperature, weather, etc. But why this change is happening? What is the reason behind it? Are we human behind this? We will know all the reasons behind climate change further in this blog.

What is climate change?

Climate change refers to change in the weather and it’s pattern. These takes place due to change in climate system of earth. The climate system is basically consisted of 5 components. These 5 components are atmosphere(air), hydrosphere(water), biosphere(living things), cryptosphere(ice and permafrost), Lithosphere(earth’s upper layer).

The energy of each component flows constantly from one component to another. This decides the weather and it's pattern. The average of the weather is known as climate. The energy for this process is mostly received from sun.

All the component receives this energy and also gives-off the energy to outer space. So the balance between the energy received and given away decides how the weather and temperature will change. The balance between this is known as earth’s energy budget.

Earth’s energy budget will have certain change in weather which leads to change in the climate. The change in Earth's energy budget can cause due to internal variable and external forcing. This can be natural or anthropogenic(due to human activities) which leads to change in climate for typical period of some decades known as climate change.

Natural reasons for climate change

Ocean-atmosphere variables:

The ocean-atmosphere variable is a variation in climate for certain specific time cause due to flow of energy between two components of the climate system affecting the earth’s energy budget affecting the global surface temperature.

El Niño–Southern Oscillation:

El Nino Southern oscillation is basically an irregular periodic variation. This variation takes place in sea surface temperature and wind over the tropical eastern pacific Ocean which affects tropical and subtropical climate.

It consists of El Nino which is a warm phase and La Nina which is the cool phase. This can make a really significant change in climate. These phases last several months and occurs in few years.

Pacific decadal Oscillation:

The pacific decadal oscillation is a climate variable where the mid latitude of the pacific basin is the centre of it. As like El Nino, it is also warm and cool surface oscillation. This can affect the climate for years or even decades.

Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation:

The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation is Atlantic ocean’s climate cycle affecting the sea surface temperature. These takes place because of rainfall pattern, hurricane activity and even fish population.


As we all know the earth gets most of its energy from the sun. But sunlight reaching the earth's surface varies on the motion of the earth. The various changes in earth’s position is known as “Milankovitch Cycles”. There is also change in sun’s sunlight annual. Although the change is very little but the impact of it on the earth is significant.


Volcanoes can be the major reason for the climate change. Volcanoes went erupted(Known as volcanic eruption) releases sulphur Dioxide, dust, ash, and greenhouse gasses which can contribute to climate change.

When a volcano erupts it releases dust and ash in the atmosphere. This dust consists of small particles and large particles which can even reach stratosphere(the second layer of earth’s atmosphere) resulting shading of the sunlight. As the because of shading of the sunlight this will result in temporary cooling of the earth.

The release of sulphur is even more effective in cooling of the earth. Same as ash, sulphur also goes up to stratosphere and mixes with water and becoming sulphuric acid aerosols.The sulphuric acid makes a haze of tiny droplets in the stratosphere that reflects incoming solar radiation, causing cooling of the Earth’s surface. This can stay up to three years in stratosphere and can cause significant cooling worldwide as it moves by wind all over the world.

Volcanic eruption even contributes to global warming as it also releases greenhouse gasses like water vapour and carbon dioxide. Thus when there is any volcanic eruption there is always significant increase in greenhouse gas emission.

Human activities:

As we have seen before, there are many natural reasons behind climate change. But human activities also contributing the climate change. And the biggest reason for human impact on climate change is excessive greenhouse gas emission.

Excessive greenhouse gas emissions are changing the earth’s energy budget which can lead to warming or cooling of the climate system. It has been seen that since from industrial era the climate of the earth is getting warmer and the emission of the greenhouse started increasing after this era started.

The greenhouse gases consist of mainly Carbon Dioxide(CO2), Methane(CH4), Nitrous Oxide(N2O), halocarbons.

Carbon dioxide is increases due to use of fossil fuels for transportation and various purposes. Even deforestation also contribute in CO2 and even decrease the uptake of it by plants.

Methane is also released by natural gas distribution, agriculture and even in landfill.Fertilisers and fossil fuel burning releases nitrogen oxide. Halocarbon like CFC is also produced through refrigerating agent.

Ozone is a greenhouse gas which is produced by chemical reaction of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon,nitrogen oxide and even gets destroyed by halocarbons.

Water vapour are mostly released naturally but human activities still can influence it as due other greenhouse gas emissions, the earth is getting warmer are releases more water vapour.

The issue created by this is known as radiative forcing. Radiative forcing is a measure of how the energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system is influenced when factors that affect climate are altered. This results in absorption of outgoing thermal radiation which due to increase in ozone which warms the planet.

Aerosol released result in absorption of solar radiation causing positive and negative forcing but mostly negative forcing which changes the cloud properties.

So since the industrial era the climate change is contributed by human activity resulting warming planet and drastically changing weather. Although, this is not supposed to be good sign for earth.

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Effects of water pollution Tue, 20 Aug 2019 13:27:10 +0000 Water Pollution is having many effects affecting on human health and the environment and we people are responsible for the problem. Industrialization and urbanisation are the two things which contributes the most in this issue.

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Water pollution is one of the biggest environmental hazards we are facing in this world. The is the same “water” which is essential for every living being on this planet, including us. But somehow we are polluting it more and day by day. This is now repealing back to us only and its hazardous effects on the environment. And even the innocent aquatic animals are facing some issues.

Water Pollution is having many effects affecting on human health and the environment and we people are responsible for the problem. Industrialization and urbanisation are the two things which contributes the most in this issue.

In this blog we will see how the water pollution is affecting the environmentalist and how we are responsible for it. The following are the effects of water pollution.

Death of aquatic animals:

Water pollution has become a problem for us, but it is also hurting the innocent aquatic animal. It is like the punishment for the crime they never did. Animal in the water bodies and who survive on water bodies are dying due to dangerous effects of water pollution.

Small fish and small creature are the one who can’t handle the water pollution and dies due to that. And the reason behind this death is water pollution due to agriculture and industrial poison. Agricultural run-off results into eutrophication i.e. concentration of increase in nutrient which cause oxygen depletion in the water bodies which results into death of small aquatic animals.

Pollution even kills bugs in the water which creates problem animals who survive on them. Not just death of the animals some animals can get injured and or starve to death due to the water pollution.

Plastic is one thing which contribute in water pollution made even more difficult to the aquatic animals and birds to survive now. Plastic in the ocean is killing more animals now. Some animals are eating plastic and some are getting trapped into it. This is happening because of being careless about recycling the plastic consequences are paid by the lives of aquatic animals.

Sea Turtle
Image by Francis Ray from Pixabay

Food Chain and Ecosystem Disruption:

Food chain is basically a cycle where one animal eats another to survive, and ecosystem is the environment in which this cycle of food chain take place. But because of the destruction of the ecosystem of water bodies there is now a heavy disruption in the food chain of the aquatic life inside the water bodies. In many ways these happens which are:


When one animal eats another animal which contain pollutant is known as bioaccumulation. Bioaccumulation cause of death of many aquatic animals. Basically when a small aquatic animals ingest any pollutant and when many animals like this are eaten by the bigger animals than he receives more amount of pollutant in its body.

This results in high level of toxin in bigger fish. Many aquatic animals like swordfish consists of mercury which is toxic and can damage kidneys in mammals. This innocent animals doesn't even have any idea that they are ingesting poison in their body.

Persistent water pollutants:

Persistent water pollutants are basically the pollutants in water which stays for years. This means they do not easy to dissolve in water or having resistance to biodegradability. These are basically chemicals come from pesticides, industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, etc.

This especially disrupts the endocrine system of the marine animals. Endocrine system is basically a gland in the body of a mammal and disruption of that system is hormonal imbalance in the body of a mammal. This can lead to feminization of amphibians, neurological problems and cancer in the body of a mammal.

This is how we are creating problems in the marine life by directly discharging these types of pollutants in the water which is now seriously affecting them.


The eutrophication is basically the overabundance of nutrients in water bodies. This heavy flow of nutrient comes from agriculture. Agriculture uses fertilizers which provide nutrients to the plants.

But most of the nutrients of the fertilizer is not taken by the crops and runs-off into the water bodies like rivers which caries this water to the ocean. This overabundance of nutrient leads to decrease of oxygen level of the water bodies which affects the food chain of the marine life.


Disease is one of the major issues of the water pollution affecting animals and humans too. The polluted water consist of heavy metal, pesticides, pathogen which can cause major diseases can also result in death.

Waterborne disease causes 2 million deaths annually according to World Health Organisation(WHO) every year. Chemicals and heavy metals can cause cancer, pesticide in farm can cause neurological problems, pathogens in water can cause diseases like typhoid, cholera, etc.

These issue is getting serious as the time goes by even the water crisis is taking place around which make many people depend on contaminated water which can increase the amount of people facing this issue.


So these are the major effects of water pollution to the environment, animals and us too. This is creating a major threat to the basic need for life on the earth. We should find a way for the causes of water pollution now before it too late. The world is facing water problem specially in asia and africa which we should resolve by taking steps towards it.

Please give your view toward this issue in the comments below. Thank You!!!

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What is water pollution and it’s sources? Sun, 11 Aug 2019 10:11:43 +0000 Water in this world is getting more and more polluted day by day due to human activity. Water pollution is any change in the physical

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The water is a basic need of life for all human, animal and even to the plants in the world. Living without water is just impossible, and living with polluted water is dangerous and unhealthy thing to do. But unfortunately, the water in this world is getting more and more polluted day by day due to human activity.

So this blog will inform you about the water pollution, it's causes, and it's effect on the world. Firstly we will go through the definition of it.


Definition of water pollution is:

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, aquifers, and groundwater) usually caused due to human activities. Water pollution is any change in the physical, chemical, or biological properties of water that will have a detrimental consequence of any living organism.


Industrial Waste:

As the name says to us, industrial waste is a waste generated by the industries. Most of the time, these industrial waste is directly discharged into water. The waste consists of dirt, concrete, trash, oil, chemicals, etc. Also, consists of dangerous waste like cleaning fluid, paint and pesticides. These industrial waste can be toxic and very harmful. This is the effect of improper waste management of the companies.

These industries are mostly located near large water as they need lots of water for industrial use. Thus, the industry uses lots of water but many of them don’t have waste management system to treat the waste.

So the waste is directly discharged in the water body close to it. These waste is very toxic and can cause real harm to the to everyone who is dependent on that particular water bodies. These can cause harm to marine life in that water bodies.

The facts are that industry uses 19% of overall freshwater and allover water they use 70% of it is directly discharged into the water bodies untreated. So these wastes are having very dangerous impact for sure.

Domestic waste:

The domestic waste is also one of the significant causes of water pollution. And the main source of domestic water pollution is sewage. The sewage is basically the human and animal excreta. Which can be human, or animal feces or urine or both. It can be also paper, cloth, food waste, etc.

This sewage water flows through water pipeline connected to every home. This water is a wastewater so should be going to the sewage treatment plant. But the reality is most of the sewage treatment plant remains untreated and some like industrial waste directly discharged into the water bodies. The fact is that 90% of sewage water is untreated and directly discharges.

Sewage is a complex mixture of chemicals. It consists of ammonium nitrate, phosphorus, nitrogen. Plus it also contains pathogens like bacteria, viruses, protozoa, parasites.

If sewage is not treated then it is surely a danger to human health and the health of the water bodies, and its marine life.


Agriculture is one of the most significant sources of water pollution. The demand for food is growing day by day with the growing population of the world. In this race of getting higher yield from farming, the agricultural water pollution is rising day by day.

There are many sources of water pollution through farming. The following are the sources of agricultural water pollution.

Thus, agriculture is having greater impact on water pollution and likely to increase in the future.


Oil is also one of the most significant sources of water pollution specially polluting the ocean. This pollution takes from oil from many ways like oil spill, water transportation, dumping, run-off.

Oil spill takes place when the oil is released into the water bodies due to some human activity. This oil spill takes place by release of oil from tankers offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, etc. This makes up 12% oil that enter the ocean. An oil spill from a tanker is a severe problem because there is such a huge quantity of oil being spilt into one place.

Oil spills cause a very localized problem but can be catastrophic to local marine wildlife such as fish, birds, and sea otters. Oil cannot dissolve in water and forms a thick sludge in the water. As the water transportation is growing day by day, this can be very dangerous to water pollution.

These are the sources of water pollution which are killing the water bodies, and it's quality soon it may can the catastrophe to us as the effects of water pollution is really devastation.

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